Various disorders of sleep initiation and maintenance can be found in the human body. They include sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome (RLS), and circadian rhythm disorders. Treatment is possible. However, it is important to know that these disorders have a serious and detrimental effect on the overall well-being of individuals.
Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sleep disorder characterized by unpleasant feelings and an irresistible urge to move one’s affected limb. These sensations can be felt in the lower limbs, legs, and arms, and often occur during sleep. It can be triggered by certain health problems, such as kidney failure or diabetes.
Most patients with RLS present with insomnia. Their symptoms can be relieved by movement or a change in medication. However, the effects of medications vary, and some may cause symptoms to get worse. In addition, which is used to treat anxiety and muscle spasms, may aggravate sleep apnea. The dosages of medicines like Modvigil 200 Australia are particularly effective for those diagnosed with sleep apnea.
Research shows that the prevalence of restless legs varies between people. While the average prevalence in the general population is about five percent, the figure is even higher for older people.
RLS is believed to be caused by abnormalities in the brain’s dopaminergic and iron systems. Dopamine is important for the purposeful movement of smooth muscles. The symptom of RLS is thought to be a result of the inability of the dopaminergic system to produce enough dopamine.
Sleep apnea is a disorder of sleep initiation and maintenance that causes a person to stop breathing repeatedly during sleep. It is a serious disorder that can cause life-threatening events if untreated. This condition affects 5% to 10% of the world’s population.
Symptoms of sleep apnea include periodic snoring and gasping. Several factors increase the risk of developing this disorder. These factors include weight, smoking, and certain head and neck anatomy.
A sleep study may be done to diagnose sleep apnea. The procedure is called a polysomnogram and involves sleeping in a medical facility and using sensors to monitor breathing. If the test confirms that a person has sleep apnea, the healthcare provider may recommend treatment.
People with moderate sleep apnea have between 15 and 29 apnea events per hour of sleep. Severe sleep apnea causes between 30 and 240 apnea events per hour.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a type of sleep disorder that occurs when the upper airway is blocked. The blockage can be caused by fat deposits, the soft tissue in the back of the throat, or adenoids. Surgery is sometimes used to remove the tissue or expand the airway.
Circadian Rhythm Disorders
Circadian rhythm disorders are a group of sleep disorders that occur when the body’s internal clock is out of sync with the external clock. They can cause a variety of health problems and can affect daily functioning. There are different types of these disorders, and each one has its own treatment options.
Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder, or DSWPD, is a condition that causes a person to wake up two or more hours later than is typical. It is most common in teenagers and young adults. However, it can also affect older adults.
Shift work disorder is a circadian rhythm disorder that is commonly associated with people who work night shifts. The disorder is diagnosed by examining a person’s sleep and wake-up schedule. People who are diagnosed with shift work sleep disorder are frequently prescribed medication such as Artvigil 150 Australia which contains Armodafinil, to fight the severe manifestations of this disorder.
Some factors that may predispose people to a circadian rhythm disorder include exposure to artificial light at night, frequent air travel, and busy social life. Symptoms of a circadian rhythm disorder can range from extreme daytime sleepiness to disorganized sleep.
Medications are often prescribed to treat insomnia, but nonpharmacologic interventions can be helpful, as well. Non-medical treatments include lifestyle changes and behavioral modifications.
In order to diagnose and manage insomnia, a doctor should be able to collect a detailed sleep history. This includes the number of hours you typically sleep, the quality of your sleep, and your sleeping habits. It’s also important to document your sleep environment and daily activities. The goal of treatment is to improve your sleep quality and reduce distress.
Your sleep history can be evaluated using questionnaires or a sleep diary. Your sleep diary should be kept for at least two weeks. Use the information to develop a personalized treatment plan.
In addition to medications, cognitive behavior therapy can help. CBT teaches you how to change negative thoughts that contribute to your insomnia.
A sleep study can help determine if you have sleep apnea. Sleep apnea is characterized by waking up suddenly gasping and snoring. Positional therapy and oral appliances are also used to treat this disorder.