The state of Uttarakhand, also known as Uttaranchal, is in the northern part of India. This state often referred to as “Devbhumi” (literally “Land of the Gods”) due to its religious significance and numerous Hindu temples and pilgrimage centers.
The Himalayas, the Bhabar and the Terai regions of Uttarakhand known for their natural beauty. To the north, it borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China; to the east, it borders Nepal; and to the west, it borders the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh. Garhwal and Kumaon, both divisions of the state, have 13 districts in total. As the state’s largest city and rail hub, Dehradun is the winter capital of Uttarakhand. The summer capital of Uttarakhand is Bhararisain in Chamoli district. It is located in Nainital that the state’s High Court is located.
Humans have lived in the region since prehistoric times, according to archaeology. During the Vedic age of Ancient India, the region formed part of the Uttarakuru Kingdom. Kunindas, who practiced an early form of Shaivism, were among the first major dynasties of Kumaon in the second century BCE.
History of Uttarakhand:
The mountain range in the region has inhabited since prehistoric times based on ancient rock paintings, rock shelters, and paleolithic stone tools. In the area are also archaeological remains demonstrating Vedic practices from 1500 BCE. Uttarakhand has ruled by the Pauravas, Khasas, Kiratas, Nandas, Mauryas, Kushanas, Kunindas, Guptas, Karkotas, Palas, Gurjara-Pratiharas, Katyuris, Raikas, Chands, Parmars or Panwars, Mallas, Shahs and the British.
Kunindas, who practiced an early form of Shaivism and traded salt with Western Tibet in the second century BCE, were among the first major dynasties in Garhwal and Kumaon. Buddhism made inroads in Western Garhwal, as evidenced by the Ashokan edict at Kalsi. A number of shamanic Hindu practices deviating from Hindu orthodoxy also flourished in this area. As a result of Shankaracharya’s travels and the arrival of migrants from the plains, Garhwal and Kumaon were return to nominal Vedic Hindu rule.
In Uttarakhand, there are 2,683 km (1,667 mi) of roads, including 1,328 km (825 mi) of national highways and 1,543 km (959 mi) of state highways. UTC (Uttarakhand Transport Corporation) is a major constituent of Uttarakhand’s transportation system, having been reorganize from State Road Transport Corporation (SRTC).
1. By Road:
Services are provided on interstate and nationalized routes by the corporation, which began operations on 31 October 2003. According to 2012 data, the UTC operates approximately 1000 buses on 35 nationalised routes and many others that aren’t nationalise.
Uttarakhand and the neighboring state of Uttar Pradesh also operate approximately 3000 buses on non-nationalised routes as well as a few interstate routes. Local transportation in the state is provided by auto rickshaws and cycle rickshaws, as is the case throughout most of the country. A vast network of crowded share jeeps connect remote towns and villages in the hills to important road junctions and bus routes.
2. By Air:
There has been a gradual improvement in the air transport network in the state. With six daily flights to Delhi Airport, Jolly Grant Airport in Dehradun is the busiest airport in the state. One flight a day operated from Pantnagar Airport in Kumaon region to Delhi and back.
Naini Saini Airport will constructed in Pithoragarh, Bharkot Airport will constructed in Chinyalisaur in Uttarkashi district, and Gauchar Airport will constructed in Gauchar, Chamoli district. Planned helipads will built at Pantnagar and Jolly Grant Airports, as well as at Ghangaria and Hemkund Sahib.
3. By Train:
The most popular mode of transportation is rail since it is the cheapest. Kathgodam is the most important railway station in Kumaun Division of Uttarakhand, 35 kilometers away from Nainital. Nainital connected to Delhi, Dehradun, and Howrah via the broad gauge line of North East Railways through Kathgodam. In addition to Pantnagar and Lalkuan, Haldwani has a number of noteworthy railway stations.
There are a number of railheads on the Northern Railway at Dehradun. Railway lines running from Delhi to Dehradun and from Howrah to Dehradun pass through Haridwar station. The Haridwar Junction Railway Station is one of the main railheads of the Northern Railways. On the main Punjab-Mughal Sarai trunk route, Roorkee falls under the Northern Railway region of Indian Railways. In addition to Rishikesh, Kotdwar and Ramnagar, daily trains connect Delhi with these railheads.
Uttarakhand surrounded by the Himalayas, which makes it a popular tourist destination. A large number of tourists flock to the ancient temples, forests reserves, national parks, hill stations, and mountain peaks in this region. As of 2009, 44 monuments in the state protected as national monuments. There is a tentative list of World Heritage Sites that includes Oak Grove School in the state. Uttarakhand is the source of two of the most sacred rivers in Hinduism, the Ganges and Yamuna. There a popular Hindu temple here called Binsar Devta.
For more than a thousand years, pilgrims have been visiting Uttarakhand in hopes of salvation and purification from sin. The state known as ‘Land of the Gods’ because it has some of the holiest Hindu shrines. As the source of the Ganges and Yamuna, Gangotri and Yamunotri are located in the upper reaches of the state. Together with Badrinath (dedicated to Vishnu) and Kedarnath (dedicated to Shiva), the Chota Char Dham is one of the most spiritual and auspicious pilgrimage routes in Hinduism. Known as the “Gateway to the Gods”, Haridwar is a top Hindu pilgrimage destination. Millions of pilgrims from all over the world attend the Haridwar Kumbh Mela every twelve years.